Boy with CVI touching computer screen with a research article about CVI and genetic cuases
Guide

CVI Research Library

Current peer-reviewed research about CVI, the visual system, and the brain

Welcome to the CVI Center's Research Library with current peer-reviewed research about CVI, the visual system, and the brain. This library serves as the foundation for the Perkins CVI Protocol and will continue to evolve as new CVI research emerges.

The visual system and the implications of damage to the visual system continue to be studied by research scientists and medical providers, including specific studies about CVI. As parents and professionals, it's important to stay up to date with current research. Knowledge about the brain can get outdated quicker than we think. Scientists and clinicians are learning more and more about the brain, and specifically how our visual system works and what happens when there are specific impairments to the visual system.

The need for more research about CVI is paramount as we strive to improve outcomes for individuals with CVI. We need more research at every level, in every area so we can better understand how the brain works, the myriad of ways CVI manifests in individuals, and rehabilitative and educational approaches.

Research Categories

The research is organized by various categories, including the CVI visual behaviors. Use the links below to navigate to the topic of research that you would like to explore.

Prevalence of CVI / Etiology of CVI / Impact of CVI

CVI, the Brain, and Neuroplasticity

CVI Clinical Assessment / Need for Diagnostic Tools

Visual Attention

  • Atkinson, J. (2017). Visual Brain Development: A review of ‘‘Dorsal Stream Vulnerability’’—motion, mathematics, amblyopia, actions, and attention. The David Teller Award Lecture, 2016. Journal of Vision, 17(3): 26, 1-24. 
  • Atkinson, J., & Braddick, O. (2011). From genes to brain development to phenotypic behavior: "dorsal-stream vulnerability" in relation to spatial cognition, attention, and planning of actions in Williams syndrome (WS) and other developmental disorders. Progress in Brain Research, 189, 261–283. 
  • Chokron, S. & Dutton, G. N. (2016). Impact of cerebral visual impairments on motor skills: Implications for developmental coordination disorders. Frontiers in Psychology 7(1471), 1-15 
  • Chokron, S., Klara, K., & Gordon D. (2021). Cortical Visual Impairments and Learning Disabilities. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15, 573. 
  • Das, M., Bennett, D. M., & Dutton, G. N. (2007). Visual attention as an important visual function: an outline of manifestations, diagnosis and management of impaired visual attention. British Journal of Ophthalmology 91, 1556-1560. 
  • Philip, S.S. and Dutton, G.N. (2014), Cerebral visual impairment in children: a review. Clin Exp Optom, 97: 196-208. 
  • Prieler, T., Wood, C., & Thomson, J. M. (2018). Developing a visual attention assessment for children at school entry. Frontiers in Psychology 9(2496), 1-14. 
  • Dutton, G. (2015). “The brain and vision.” In: A. H. Lueck & G. N. Dutton (eds). Vision and the Brain: Understanding Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children (pp. 21-38). American Foundation for the Blind Press.  New York, New York: American Foundation for the Blind Press. 
  • Dutton, G. (2015). “Eye movement disorders in children with cerebral visual impairment.” In: A. H. Lueck & G. N. Dutton (eds). Vision and the Brain: Understanding Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children (pp. 177-188). American Foundation for the Blind Press.  New York, New York: American Foundation for the Blind Press.

Visual Recognition

  • Carbon, C.C. (2014). Understanding human perception by human-made illusions. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 566.
  • Chokron, S., Klara, K., & Gordon D. (2021). Cortical Visual Impairments and Learning Disabilities. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15, 573. 
  • Dutton, G. (2015). “The brain and vision.” In: A. H. Lueck & G. N. Dutton (eds). Vision and the Brain: Understanding Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children (pp. 21-38). American Foundation for the Blind Press.  New York, New York: American Foundation for the Blind Press.
  • Dutton, G. (2015). “ Disorders of the brain and how they can affect vision.” In: A. H. Lueck & G. N. Dutton (eds). Vision and the Brain: Understanding Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children (pp. 39-82). American Foundation for the Blind Press.  New York, New York: American Foundation for the Blind Press.
  • Haxby, J. V., Hoffman, E. A., & Gobbini, M. I. (2000). The distributed human neural system for face perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4(6), 223-233. 
  • Karimi-Rouzbahani, H., Bagheri, N., & Ebrahimpour, R. (2017). Invariant object recognition is a personalized selection of invariant features in humans, not simply explained by hierarchical feed-forward vision models. Scientific Reports, 7(14402), 1-24.
  • Philip, S.S. and Dutton, G.N. (2014), Cerebral visual impairment in children: a review. Clin Exp Optom, 97: 196-208. https://doi.org/10.1111/cxo.12155
  • Steendam, M. (2015). “Improving functional use of vision for children with CVI and multiple disabilities.” A. H. Lueck & G. N. Dutton (eds). Vision and the Brain: Understanding Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children (pp. 571-612). New York, New York: American Foundation for the Blind Press.

Visual Curiosity

Form Accessibility

Visual Field Abilities

Visual Guidance of Upper Limbs

Visual Guidance of Lower Limbs

Impact of Motion

Sensory Integration

  • McDowell, N., & Budd, J. (2018). The Perspectives of Teachers and Paraeducators on the Relationship between Classroom Clutter and Learning Experiences for Students with Cerebral Visual Impairment. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 112(3), 248–260. 
  • Dutton, G. (2015). “The brain and vision.” In: A. H. Lueck & G. N. Dutton (eds). Vision and the Brain: Understanding Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children (pp. 21-38). American Foundation for the Blind Press. New York, New York: American Foundation for the Blind Press.
  • Lueck, A. H., & Dutton, G. N. (2015). “Intervention Methods: Overview and Principles.” A. H. Lueck & G. N. Dutton (eds). Vision and the Brain: Understanding Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children (pp. 497-536). New York, New York: American Foundation for the Blind Press.

Impact of Color

  • Claeys, K., Dupont, P. Cornette, L. Sunaert, S., Van Hecke, P., De Schutter, E., & Orban,G. (2004) Color Discrimination Involves Ventral and Dorsal Stream Visual Areas, Cerebral Cortex, 14(7), 803–822. 
  • Cohen-Maitre, S. A. & Haerich, P. (2005). Visual attention to movement and color in children with cortical visual impairment. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 99(7), 1-19.
  • Lueck, A. H., & Dutton, G. N. (2015). “Intervention Methods: Overview and Principles.” A. H. Lueck & G. N. Dutton (eds). Vision and the Brain: Understanding Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children (pp. 497-536). New York, New York: American Foundation for the Blind Press.
  • Ting Siok, W., Kay, P., Wang, W. S., Chan, A. H., Chen, L., Luke, K. K., et al. (2009). Language regions of brain are operative in color perception. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 8140–8145.
  • Yoto, A., Katsuura, T., Iwanaga, K., and Shimomura, Y. (2007). Effects of object color stimuli on human brain activities in perception and attention referred to EEG alpha band response. J. Physiol. Anthropol. 26, 373–379.

Impact of Light

  • Geetha, V. K. P. (2020). Cerebral visual impairment in children. Kerala Journal of Ophthalmology 32(1), 27-35.
  • Jan. J. E., Groenveld, M., & Sykanda, A. (1990). Light-gazing by visually impaired children. Dev Med Child Neurology 32(9), 755-759.
  • Lueck, A. H., & Dutton, G. N. (2015). “Intervention Methods: Overview and Principles.” A. H. Lueck & G. N. Dutton (eds). Vision and the Brain: Understanding Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children (pp. 497-536). New York, New York: American Foundation for the Blind Press.

Impact of Clutter/Crowding

Access to People

  • Behrmann, M. & Plaut, D. C. (2013). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17(5), 210-219.
  • Chokron, S., Klara, K., & Gordon D. (2021). Cortical Visual Impairments and Learning Disabilities. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15, 573. 
  • Dalrymple, K. A. & Palermo, R. (2016). Guidelines for studying developmental prosopagnosia in adults and children with CVI. WIREs Cognitive Science, 7, 73-87.
  • Duchaine, B. C. & Nakayama, K. (2006). Developmental prosopagnosia: a window to content-specific face processing. Current Opinions in Neurobiology.16, 166-173.
  • Dutton, G. (2015). “Disorders of the brain and how they can affect vision.” In: A. H. Lueck & G. N. Dutton (eds). Vision and the Brain: Understanding Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children (pp. 39-82). New York, New York: American Foundation for the Blind Press.
  • Dutton, G. (2015). “The brain and vision.” In: A. H. Lueck & G. N. Dutton (eds). Vision and the Brain: Understanding Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children (pp. 21-38). American Foundation for the Blind Press. New York, New York: American Foundation for the Blind Press.
  • Dutton, G. (2015). “Assessment of Function Vision: Assessment of visual processing in children with CVI.” In: A. H. Lueck & G. N. Dutton (eds). Vision and the Brain: Understanding Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children (pp. 343-390). New York, New York: American Foundation for the Blind Press.
  • Haxby, J. V., Hoffman, E. A., & Gobbini, M. I. (2000). The distributed human neural system for face perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(6), 223-233.
  • Shinskey, J. & Jachens, L. (2014) Picturing Objects in Infancy. Child Development, 85(5).

Compensatory Skills

  • Blackstone, S. W., Luo, F., Canchola, J., Wilkinson, K. M., & Roman-Lantzy, C. (2021). Children with cortical visual impairment and complex communication needs: Identifying gaps between needs and current practice. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in School, 52, 612-619. 
  • Dutton, G. (2015). Disorders of the brain and how they can affect vision. In: A. H. Lueck & G. N. Dutton (eds). Vision and the Brain : Understanding Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children (pp. 39-82). New York, New York: American Foundation for the Blind Press.
  • Fazzi, E., Molinaro, A., & Harmann, E. (2015). “The potential impact of visual impairment and CVI on child development”. In: A. H. Lueck & G. N. Dutton (eds). Vision and the Brain: Understanding Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children (pp. 83-104). American Foundation for the Blind Press.
  • Lueck, A. H., & Dutton, G. N. (2015). “Intervention Methods: Overview and Principles.” A. H. Lueck & G. N. Dutton (eds). Vision and the Brain: Understanding Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children (pp. 497-536). New York, New York: American Foundation for the Blind Press.
  • Merabet, L. B., Mayer, D. L., Bauer, C. M., Wright, D., & Kran, B. S. (2017). Disentangling how the brain is 'wired' in Cortical (Cerebral) visual impairment. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology 24, 83-91.
  • Pamir, Z., Bauer, C. M., Bennett, C. R., Kran, B. S., & Merabet, L. B. (2021). Visual perception supported by verbal mediation in an individual with cerebral visual impairment (CVI). Neuropsychologia, 160, 107982. 

Check out essential books and videos about CVI and the brain right here at CVINow.org.