Orientation & Mobility for Infants & Small Children

These sites offer advice for developing and encouraging independence, confidence, and orientation and mobility skills in infants and small children who are blind or visually impaired.

Independent Movement and Travel
Blind Children's Resource Center
Joe Cutter, Early Childhood O&M specialist with the NJ Commission for the Blind, shares his thoughts on teaching Orientation and Mobility to young children.  He addresses the topics of independence, visual development, and other issues in early childhood.

Mobility Devices for Young Children
American Foundation for the Blind (AFB)
There are several kinds of mobility devices that young children who are blind or severely visually impaired can learn to use. These devices, which probe the area ahead of the child, include kiddie canes and adapted canes, also known as pre-canes or alternative mobility devices. This site describes these devices; how parents and teachers can use them with young children; what children will learn; and where these devices can be purchased. Available in Spanish.

Orientation and Mobility Assessment
Family Connect
What to expect from your young child's orientation and mobility (O&M) assessment. Also available in Spanish.

Orientation & Mobility for Babies
Babies who are born blind or visually impaired need body awareness and orientation skills from the very beginning.  WonderBaby gets you started with Games You Can Play Now.

O&M Games for the Very Young Child
Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI)
Youngsters love to explore through play and try out new ideas and skills.  Use these opportunities to establish skills which will be meaningful for the child's mobility and development.

Orientation And Mobility (O&M): The Early Years Of Infancy Through Preschool
Colorado Department of Education
Tanni L. Anthony explains the instructional philosophy of teaching methodologies specific to the youngest clients.
This document is a Resource for the Expanded Core Curriculum.

Orientation and Mobility Training: The Way to Go
Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI)
The article is taken from Reaching, Crawling, Walking . . .Orientation and Mobility for Preschool Children, and addresses the importance of movement in the development of children who are blind.  Also available in Spanish.

Parents: Blind Children's First Mobility Teachers
Future Reflections, 23(2), Special Issue 2004, National Federation of the Blind (NFB)
This article emphasizes the importance of parents as teachers of mobility; based on a presentation by Joe Cutter to the Parents of Blind Children Seminar..

The Roots Of Orientation And Mobility: Birth to Three Years
Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI)
A simple listing of developmental expectations for orientation and mobility, and environmental supports for reaching these goals.

Step Toward Equality: Cane Travel Training For The Young Blind Child
Fredric Schroeder, PhD. Future Reflections, Vol. 8, No.1 (2008)
This article, from the Future Reflections special issue on Cane Travel and Independence explains the similarities and differences between adult cane training and training for children.