- Advice for Parents and Families
- Cognitive Development
- Daily Living Skills
- Early Childhood Services
- Language and Communication
- Literacy and Prebraille Skills
- Orientation and Mobility
- Preschool Classroom
- Social Skills
- Touch and Movement
- Toys and Play
- Young Children with Additional Disabilities
Affecting Children with Visual Impairments or Blindness
Any child may develop problem behaviors, but young ones with blindness or visual impairment are at risk for specific inappropriate behaviors, including repetitive mannerisms and self-stimulatory patterns. Parents and teachers will find explanations that help in understanding the reasons for the behavior, advice for appropriate interventions, and suggestions for reinforcing desirable behavior that will enhance the child's social success.
Functional Behavioral Assessment and Positive Interventions: What Parents Need to Know (Parent Kit)
U.S. Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP)
Dixie Jordan's overview helps parents "understand problem behaviors …. If we learn about the behaviors and know when and where they are likely to happen, we can plan positive strategies to teach new behaviors."
How to Conduct Functional Behavior Assessment
Beach Center on Disability
This is a brief introduction to conducting a functional behavior assessment, which helps determine probable causes and sets the stage for developing a Positive Behavior Support Plan.
Looking at Self-Stimulation in the Pursuit of Leisure or I'm Okay, You Have a Mannerism
Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI)
Kate Moss and Robbie Blaha look at self-stimulation as a common behavior during leisure time. They consider whether such behaviors can be stopped or redirected, and whether modifications of the behavior and the environment may be appropriate.
This phenomenon is described by some child behavior therapists as a type of Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) often associated with autism. Tactile defensiveness can complicate tactile learning in children with visual impairments. The phenomenon is also debated by many parents of children who are blind or visually impaired. For a skeptical view, see this summarized discussion between National Federation of the Blind members, as posted in Future Reflections.
Web-Based Organizations and Internet Resources
Positive Approaches to Challenging Behavior for Young Children with Disabilities
Early Childhood Behavior Project – University of Minnesota
The purpose of this web site is to discuss positive behavioral supports for young children who engage in challenging behavior.
See also Behavior Issues